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Tracheoesophageal fistulas rarely close spontaneously. The treatment depends on the cause and the location of the fistula. The goal of the therapy is to cover the connection between the trachea and the esophagus to prevent aspiration and pneumonia. The main therapies include esophageal stenting, or surgical repair. The surgical repair includes separation of the trachea and the esophagus, repair of the hole in each organ and placement of a muscle between the two organs to prevent future fistula formation.