A hernia occurs when part of an organ (or other tissue) pushes through an opening or weak spot in the muscle or connective tissue. If you’ve been diagnosed with a hernia or you’re experiencing related symptoms, it’s important to be checked by a specialist who can determine the best treatment plan for your specific condition.
The specialty trained general surgeons affiliated with Memorial Hermann are here for you, to provide specialized care, guidance and the treatment necessary to help you get back to a pain-free life.
There are various types of hernias that can occur in different parts of the body, each with specific causes, symptoms and treatments. The most common are listed below.
Occurring up to eight times more often in men than women, an inguinal hernia is the most common type of hernia, and occurs when the intestines push through a weak spot or tear in the lower abdominal wall near the groin.
In men, this is usually the result of a birth defect when, before birth, the testicles descend and leave an opening in the muscle wall, which normally closes before birth. If this opening does not close properly, a hole remains that can allow tissue to push through.
Inguinal Hernias Causes and Risk Factors
Some inguinal hernias have no apparent cause. Others may occur as a result of:
Other factors that can increase the risk of developing an inguinal hernia include:
Inguinal Hernias Symptoms
The most common symptoms of inguinal hernia include:
Diagnosing Inguinal Hernias
Inguinal hernias are usually diagnosed with a physical examination. A doctor will check for a bulge in the groin area and may ask you to stand, cough or flex your abdominal muscles. In certain cases, imaging tests such as an abdominal ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may be required.
Potential Complications with Inguinal Hernias
An inguinal hernia may become incarcerated, meaning the contents of the hernia can get trapped in the abdominal wall. This can obstruct the bowel and potentially cause vomiting, nausea and pain and possibly affect bowel tissue. This condition can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention – and likely surgery.
If you notice your hernia bulge turns a dark color like red or purple, or if you develop nausea, vomiting or fever, seek immediate emergency care.
Femoral hernias occur more often in women than men, and closer to the groin area than an inguinal hernia. Because of their location, femoral hernias are usually painful and can often lead to strangulation of tissue in the groin area, requiring immediate surgery.
Umbilical hernias are located around the navel. They most often occur in infants, but can also occur in adults, especially in pregnant or overweight patients. Umbilical hernias in infants can close by themselves; however, they do not self-correct in adults and typically require surgical repair. If left untreated, the herniated tissue can become trapped, resulting in a medical emergency.
Incisional or ventral hernias occur in the belly or abdomen as a result of prior abdominal surgery. They are more frequent in people who are older, overweight and have had multiple operations using the same incision. This type of hernia is quite painful and requires medical attention.
Epigastric hernias are lumps or bulges that occur in the upper part of the abdominal wall, between the navel and the breastbone. Epigastric hernias can occur in men, women and children.
Like umbilical hernias, epigastric hernias can be present in infants when they are born and will sometimes self-heal as the abdominal wall strengthens. Epigastric hernias in adults will not self-heal and require surgical repair. As with other types of hernias, if left untreated, epigastric hernias can result in the herniated tissue becoming trapped, requiring emergency surgery.
Unlike the hernias described above, which occur when the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall, hiatal hernias occur when the stomach protrudes thorough the diaphragm into the chest. The exact cause of hiatal hernias is unknown. They are mostly caused by weakening of the muscles of the diaphragm around the esophagus. Other causes that increase the intra-abdominal pressure such as pregnancy will contribute to the formation of hiatal hernias.
Types of Hiatal Hernias
Symptoms of Hiatal Hernias
The most common symptoms associated with hiatal hernias are:
This can cause chronic or recurring heartburn, and can lead to erosion of the esophagus. Treatment options include surgery, diet changes and/or medication.
Hernias that become enlarged or painful usually require surgery. Depending on your condition, your surgeon may perform either a laparoscopic hernia repair or an open hernia repair.
Laparoscopic surgery (sometimes referred to as a keyhole surgery) is a minimally invasive procedure performed under general anesthesia. During laparoscopic surgery, a few small incisions are made and a tiny camera (laparoscope) is used to view inside your body while the hernia is repaired.
Laparoscopic hernia repair results in fewer complications, smaller scars and a shorter recovery time than open surgery.
Depending on a number of factors, your surgeon may determine that open surgery is the best option. Open surgery uses suturing or the placement of a synthetic mesh over your hernia (in one of the layers of the abdominal wall) to successfully repair the condition.
While uncommon, some patients can develop another hernia at the original site of the repair. Whether this is caused by an infection at the surgical site, weakening of the tissue due to surgery or an improper hernia repair, revision surgery is necessary to repair this condition.
Symptoms of a hernia repair failure are similar to those of the original hernia: abnormal bulging, pain and a darkening of tissue.
You can help avoid the need for hernia revision surgery, if you maintain a healthy lifestyle, avoid excessive weight gain and prevent constipation by drinking plenty of water.